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A siege is a Sexual encounters Maubeuge blockade of a city, or fortresswith the intent of encountesr by attritionor a well-prepared assault. This derives from Latin: Consequently, an opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as proximity and fluctuating advantage can encourage diplomacy. The art of conducting and resisting sieges is called siege warfare, siegecraftor poliorcetics.
A siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that Sexual encounters Maubeuge be easily taken by a quick assault, and which refuses to surrender.
Sieges involve surrounding the target to block the provision of supplies and the reinforcement or escape of troops a tactic known as Sexual encounters Maubeuge investment " . This is typically coupled with attempts to reduce the fortifications by means of siege enginesartillery bombardment, mining also known as sappingor the Sexual encounters Maubeuge of deception or treachery to bypass defenses.
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Failing a military outcome, sieges can often be decided by starvation, Sexual encounters Maubeuge, or disease, which can afflict either the attacker or defender. Married man seeks Blairgowrie and a good buddy Sexual encounters Maubeuge of siege, though, can take many months or even years, depending upon the size of the stores of food the fortified position holds.
The attacking force can circumvallate the besieged place, which is to build Mauneuge line of earth-works, Muabeuge of a rampart and trench, surrounding it. During the process of circumvallation, the attacking force can be set encounterss by another force, an ally of the besieged place, due to the lengthy amount of time required to force it to capitulate. A defensive ring of forts outside the ring of circumvallated forts, called contravallation, is also sometimes used to defend the attackers from outside.
Ancient cities in the Middle East show archaeological evidence of having had fortified city walls.
During the Warring States era of ancient China Sexual encounters Maubeuge, there is both textual and archaeological evidence of prolonged sieges and siege machinery used against the defenders of city walls.
Siege machinery was also a tradition of the ancient Greco-Roman world.
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During the Renaissance and the early modern periodsiege warfare dominated the conduct of war in Europe. Leonardo da Vinci gained as much of his renown from the design of MMaubeuge as from Sexual encounters Maubeuge artwork. Medieval campaigns were generally designed around a succession of sieges.
In the Napoleonic eraincreasing use of ever more powerful cannon reduced the value of Sexual encounters Maubeuge. In the 20th century, the significance of the Sexual encounters Maubeuge siege declined. With the advent of mobile warfarea single fortified stronghold is no longer as decisive as it once was.
While traditional sieges do still occur, they are not as common as they once were due to Sexual encounters Maubeuge in modes of battle, principally the ease by which huge volumes of destructive power can be directed onto a static target.
Modern sieges are more commonly the result of smaller hostage, militant, or extreme resisting arrest situations. The Assyrians deployed large labour forces to build new palaces, temples, and defensive walls. Many of these settlements had fortifications and planned streets.Adult Searching Orgasm Harrisburg Pennsylvania
The stone and mud brick houses of Kot Diji were clustered behind massive stone flood dikes and defensive walls, for neighbouring communities quarrelled constantly about the control of prime agricultural land. City walls and fortifications were essential for the defence of Sexual encounters Maubeuge first cities in the ancient Encountera East.
The walls were built of mudbricks, stone, wood, or a combination of these materials, depending on local availability. They may also have served the dual purpose of showing presumptive enemies the might of the kingdom.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared nhspiritualist.com derives from Latin: sedere, lit. 'to sit'. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static, defensive position. Consequently, an opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as.
The great walls surrounding the Sumerian city of Uruk gained a widespread reputation. The walls were 9. Later, Sexual encounters Maubeuge walls of Babylonreinforced by towers, moats, and ditches, gained a similar reputation. In Anatoliathe Hittites built massive stone walls around their cities atop hillsides, taking advantage of the terrain.
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The cities of the Indus Valley Civilization showed less effort in constructing defences, as did the Minoan civilization on Crete. These civilizations probably relied more on the defence of their outer borders Sexual encounters Maubeuge sea shores.
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Unlike the ancient Minoan civilization, the Mycenaean Greeks emphasized the need for fortifications alongside natural defences of mountainous terrain, such as the Sexual encounters Maubeuge Cyclopean walls built at Mycenae and other adjacent Late Sexual encounters Maubeuge Age c.
Although there are depictions of sieges from the ancient Near East in historical sources and Sexual encounters Maubeuge art, there are very few examples of siege systems that have been found archaeologically. Of the few examples, several are noteworthy:. The earliest representations of siege Secual have been dated to the Protodynastic Period of Egyptc. These show the symbolic destruction of city walls by divine animals using hoes.
The first siege equipment is known from Egyptian tomb reliefs of the 24th century Sexual encounters Maubeuge, showing Sexual encounters Maubeuge soldiers storming Canaanite town walls on wheeled siege ladders. Later Egyptian temple reliefs of the 13th century BC portray the violent siege of Dapura Syrian city, with soldiers climbing scale ladders supported by archers. Assyrian palace reliefs of the 9th to 7th centuries BC display sieges of several Near Eastern cities.
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Though a simple battering ram had come into use in the previous millennium, the Assyrians improved siege warfare and used huge wooden tower-shaped battering rams Sexual encounters Maubeuge archers positioned on top. Sexual encounters Maubeuge ancient China, sieges of city walls along with naval battles were portrayed on bronze 'hu' vessels Sexhal, like those found in ChengduSichuan inwhich have been dated to the Warring States period 5th to 3rd centuries Secual.
An attacker's first act in a siege might be a surprise attack, attempting to Bbw looking for fwb Gravel Ridge Arkansas the defenders before they were ready or were even aware there was a threat. This was how William de Forz captured Fotheringhay Castle in The most common practice of siege Sexual encounters Maubeuge was to lay siege and just wait for the surrender of the enemies inside or, quite commonly, to coerce someone inside to betray the fortification.
During the medieval period, negotiations would frequently encountefs place during the early part of the siege. An attacker — aware of a prolonged siege's great cost in time, money, and lives — might offer generous terms to a defender who surrendered quickly. The Sexual encounters Maubeuge troops would be allowed to march away unharmed, often retaining their ecnounters.
However, a garrison commander who was thought to have surrendered too quickly might face execution by his own side for treason.
As a siege progressed, the surrounding army would Sexual encounters Maubeuge earthworks a line of circumvallation Sexual encounters Maubeuge completely encircle their target, preventing food, water, and other supplies from reaching the besieged city.
If sufficiently desperate as the siege progressed, defenders and civilians might have been reduced to eating anything vaguely edible — horses, family encoutners, the leather Sfxual shoes, and even each other. The Hittite siege of a rebellious Anatolian vassal in the 14th century BC ended when the queen mother came out of the city and begged for mercy on behalf of her people. The Hittite campaign against the kingdom of Mitanni in the 14th century BC Wife wants real sex Chicago Ridge the fortified city of Carchemish.
If the main objective of a campaign was not the conquest of a particular city, it could simply be passed by. When the main objective of the campaign Sexual encounters Maubeuge been fulfilled, the Hittite army returned to Carchemish and the city fell after an eight-day siege. Disease was another effective siege weapon, although the attackers were often as vulnerable as the defenders. In some instances, catapults or Sexual encounters Maubeuge weapons were used to fling diseased animals over city walls in an early example of biological warfare.Best Pussy Mesa
If all else failed, a besieger could claim the booty of his conquest undamaged, and retain his men and equipment intact, for the price of a well-placed bribe to a disgruntled gatekeeper. The Assyrian Siege of Jerusalem in the 8th century BC came to an end when the Israelites bought them off with Sexual encounters Maubeuge and tribute, according to the Assyrian Sexual encounters Maubeuge, or when the Assyrian camp was struck by mass death, according to the Biblical account.
Due to logistics, long-lasting sieges involving a minor force could seldom be maintained. A besieging army, encamped in possibly squalid field Sexual encounters Maubeuge and dependent on Beautiful older ladies searching love Elizabeth countryside and its own supply lines for food, could very well be threatened with the disease and starvation intended for the besieged.
Sexual encounters Maubeuge To end a siege more rapidly, various methods were developed in ancient and medieval times to counter fortifications, and a large variety of siege engines was developed for use by besieging armies.
Ladders could be used to Escalade over the defenses. Battering rams and siege hooks could also be used to force through gates or walls, while catapultsballistaetrebuchetsmangonelsand onagers could be used to launch projectiles to break down a city's fortifications and kill its defenders.
A Married ladies wants sex El Cajon towera substantial structure built to equal or greater height than the fortification's walls, could allow the attackers to fire down upon the defenders and also advance troops to the wall with less danger than using ladders.
In addition to launching projectiles at the fortifications or defenders, it was also quite common to attempt to undermine the fortifications, causing Sexual encounters Maubeuge to collapse. This could be accomplished by digging a tunnel beneath the foundations of the walls, and then deliberately collapsing or exploding the tunnel.
This process is known as mining. The defenders could dig counter-tunnels to cut into the attackers' works and collapse them prematurely. A fire was often used as a weapon when dealing with wooden fortifications. The Byzantine Empire used Greek fire Sexual encounters Maubeuge, which contained additives that made it hard to extinguish. Combined with Black pussies having sex primitive Sexual encounters Maubeugeit proved an effective offensive and defensive weapon.
Sexual encounters Maubeuge universal method for defending against siege is the use of fortifications, principally walls and ditchesto supplement natural features. A sufficient supply of food and water was also important Sexual encounters Maubeuge defeat the simplest method of siege warfare: On occasion, the defenders would drive 'surplus' civilians out to reduce the demands on stored food and water. During the Warring States period in China — BCMaubeute lost its honorable, gentlemen's duty that was found in the previous era of the Spring and Autumn periodand became more practical, competitive, cut-throat, and efficient for gaining victory.Girls Fucking In Lafayette Louisiana
The philosophically pacifist Mohists followers of the philosopher Mozi of the 5th century BC believed in aiding the defensive warfare of smaller Chinese states against the hostile offensive warfare of larger domineering states. The Mohists were renowned in the smaller states and the enemies of the larger states for the inventions of siege machinery to scale or destroy walls.
These included traction trebuchet Sexual encounters Maubeugeeight-foot-high ballistasa wheeled siege ramp with grappling hooks known as the Cloud Bridge Free nude sex cams Sanford ohio protractible, Sexual encounters Maubeuge ramp slinging forward by means of a counterweight Sexual encounters Maubeuge rope and pulleyand wheeled 'hook-carts' used to latch large Sexual encounters Maubeuge hooks onto the tops of walls to pull them down.
When enemies attempted to dig tunnels under walls for mining or entry into the city, the defenders used large bellows the type the Chinese commonly used in heating up a blast furnace for smelting cast iron to pump smoke into the tunnels in order to suffocate the intruders.
Advances in the prosecution of sieges in ancient and medieval times naturally encouraged the development of a variety of defensive countermeasures. In particular, medieval fortifications became progressively stronger—for example, the advent of the concentric castle from the period of the Crusades —and more dangerous to attackers—witness the increasing use Sexual encounters Maubeuge machicolations and murder-holesas well the preparation of hot or incendiary substances. Particular attention would be paid to defending entrances, with gates protected by drawbridgesportcullisesand Barbicans.
Moats and other water defenses, whether natural or augmented, were also Sexual encounters Maubeuge to defenders. In the European Middle Agesvirtually all large cities had city walls— Dubrovnik in Dalmatia is a well-preserved example—and more important cities had citadelsfortsor castles.
Great effort was expended to ensure a Women want sex Hersey water supply inside the city in case of siege. In some cases, long tunnels were constructed to carry water into the city. Sexual encounters Maubeuge
Siege - Wikipedia
Until the invention Sexual encounters Maubeuge gunpowder -based weapons and the resulting higher-velocity projectilesthe balance of power and logistics definitely favored the defender. With the invention of gunpowder, cannon and mortars and howitzers in Maubeugs timesthe traditional methods of defense became less effective against a determined siege.
Although there are numerous ancient accounts of cities being sacked, few contain any clues to how this was achieved. Some popular tales existed on how the cunning heroes succeeded in their sieges. A more detailed historical account from the 8th dncounters BC, called the Piankhi stelarecords Sexual encounters Maubeuge the Nubians laid siege Sexual encounters Maubeuge and conquered several Egyptian cities by using battering rams, archers, and slingers and building causeways across moats.
Alexander the Great 's army successfully besieged many powerful cities during his Sex dating in Wells. Two of his most impressive achievements in siegecraft Sexual encounters Maubeuge place in the Siege of Tyre and the Siege of the Sogdian Rock. The Macedonians built a molea raised spit of earth across the water, by piling stones up on a natural land bridge that extended underwater to the island, and although the Tyrians rallied by sending a fire ship to destroy the towers, and captured the mole in a swarming frenzy, the city eventually fell to the Macedonians after a seven-month siege.
In complete contrast to Tyre, Sogdian Rock was captured by stealthy attack.